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Image 1
Artillery button (military gallery)
H(ammond) T(urner) & B(ates) Manchester
  Image 2
Rampant goat (livery gallery)
Hammond Turner & Sons
  Image 3
Royal Northern Yacht Club (uniform gallery)
Hammond Turner & Sons with crown
  Image 4
Gold circles (dandy gallery)
Hammond Turner & Dickinson
 

Image 5
Hammond Turner & Sons plus!
Civil war dug very poor specimen (military gallery)

UPDATE!
This back mark is interesting because there is another maker's name within the outer circle: it is impossible to read this one but I have since bought another button (Image 14, below) which tells more of the story, although there is still an element of mystery! 

I appealed for information about what it might say under all that verdigris... and I am very grateful to 'Rider' who suggested that it refers to the gilding and says 'Extra Super Fine'.

  Image 6
C & J Weldon London (not in a gallery, yet...)
This button is included because there was a business relationship and a friendship between Hammond Turner and Weldon in the mid-1800s: Charles Weldon was an administrator of William Hammond Turner's will. There is another Weldon backmark below.
  Image 7
Lion Works, Birmingham (not in a gallery yet...)
This was the trading name of Hammond Turner in the early 20th century.
  Image 8
Reverse of basket-weave button (dandy and dress gallery)
H T & Sons Best Qualy Plated (sic)
  Image 9
C&J Weldon London (not in a gallery)
This front is very similar to a Hammond Turner front and is a uniform button for the Royal Artillery.
  Image 10
Features a fishing basket (sporting gallery)
Hammond Turner and Sons with crown
Image 11
Features an animal which may be a horse, a deer or even, as the seller suggested, a unicorn (sporting gallery)
Hammond Turner & Sons Extra Quality
Image 12
Reverse of marbled glass waistcoat button, (dandy and dress gallery)
H T & Sons Birmm (sic)
Image 13
Weldon (not in gallery)
C&J Weldon, 130 Cheapside, London. There was a business connection between Weldon and Hammond Turner

Image 14
Hammond Turner and Sons for John Bowen and Co.
This is another version of the heavily verdigris-encrusted button above. It was made by Hammond Turner and Sons for John Bowen and Co.

For more information about John Bowen, see Dandy Gallery 1

 

Image 15
Hammond Turners & Bate, Manchester
This button can be dated fairly accurately as HT&B were trading for a short time: see the History section for more information

Button 185, image [to follow], Uniform gallery

Image 16
Pitt & Co, 31 Maddox Street, London W

Included simply because I bought the button in error and found the quality of the front to be in startling contrast to that produced by HT etc!