Image 1
Artillery button (military gallery)
H(ammond) T(urner) & B(ates) Manchester
  Image 2
Rampant goat (livery gallery)
Hammond Turner & Sons
  Image 3
Royal Northern Yacht Club (uniform gallery)
Hammond Turner & Sons with crown
  Image 4
Gold circles (dandy gallery)
Hammond Turner & Dickinson

Image 5
Hammond Turner & Sons plus!
Civil war dug very poor specimen (military gallery)

This back mark is interesting because there is another maker's name within the outer circle: it is impossible to read this one but I have since bought another button (Image 14, below) which tells more of the story, although there is still an element of mystery! 

I appealed for information about what it might say under all that verdigris... and I am very grateful to 'Rider' who suggested that it refers to the gilding and says 'Extra Super Fine'.

  Image 6
C & J Weldon London (not in a gallery, yet...)
This button is included because there was a business relationship and a friendship between Hammond Turner and Weldon in the mid-1800s: Charles Weldon was an administrator of William Hammond Turner's will. There is another Weldon backmark below.
  Image 7
Lion Works, Birmingham (not in a gallery yet...)
This was the trading name of Hammond Turner in the early 20th century.
  Image 8
Reverse of basket-weave button (dandy and dress gallery)
H T & Sons Best Qualy Plated (sic)
  Image 9
C&J Weldon London (not in a gallery)
This front is very similar to a Hammond Turner front and is a uniform button for the Royal Artillery.
  Image 10
Features a fishing basket (sporting gallery)
Hammond Turner and Sons with crown
Image 11
Features an animal which may be a horse, a deer or even, as the seller suggested, a unicorn (sporting gallery)
Hammond Turner & Sons Extra Quality
Image 12
Reverse of marbled glass waistcoat button, (dandy and dress gallery)
H T & Sons Birmm (sic)
Image 13
Weldon (not in gallery)
C&J Weldon, 130 Cheapside, London. There was a business connection between Weldon and Hammond Turner
Image 14
Hammond Turner and Sons for John Bowen and Co.
This is another version of the heavily verdigris-encrusted button above. It was made by Hammond Turner and Sons for John Bowen and Co. Does anyone know who John Bowen was? Please let me know!

Image 15
Hammond Turners & Bate, Manchester
This button can be dated fairly accurately as HT&B were trading for a short time: see the History section for more information

Button 185, image [to follow], Uniform gallery

Image 16
Pitt & Co, 31 Maddox Street, London W

Included simply because I bought the button in error and found the quality of the front to be in startling contrast to that produced by HT etc!